The LAV-25 is an eight-wheeled amphibious infantry fighting vehicle (IFV) used by the United States Marine Corps. It was built by General Dynamics Land Systems Canada and is based on the Swiss MOWAG Piranha I 8×8 family of armored fighting vehicles.
Powered by a 6V53T Detroit Diesel turbo-charged engine, they are 4-wheel drive (rear wheels) transferable to 8-wheel drive. These vehicles are also amphibious, meaning they have the ability to “swim”, but are limited to non-surf bodies of water (no oceans). While engaged in amphibious operations, the maximum speed is approximately 12 km/h using equipped propellers. The current SLEP (Service Life Extension Program) modifications will hinder/eliminate amphibious ops.
Typical land speeds are approximately 100 km/h (62.5 mph) in either 4 or 8-wheel drive, however fuel economy decreases in 8-wheel drive. The vehicles operate on diesel fuel, and require 3 weights of lubricants to remain in running condition. They are equipped with a M242 Bushmaster 25 mm cannon, two M240 7.62 mm machine guns, and two 4-barrel grenade launchers usually loaded with smoke canisters and located on the forward left and right sides of the turret. The crew is three; Vehicle commander (VC), gunner and driver, and four passengers (scouts) with combat gear.The vehicle has been through many changes through the late 1990s. The new modification or SLEP has changed the LAV-25 to the LAV-25A1 standard and has been completely fielded.
Standard LAV fitted with a turret with 360° traverse, armed with an M242 25 mm chain gun with 420 rounds of 25 mm ammunition, both M791 APDS-T( Armour Piercing Discarding Sabot-Tracer) and M792 HEI-T (High Explosive Incendiary-Tracer), of which half is ready for use. 150 rounds are ready for use from one stowage bin, 60 from another stowage bin, the other 210 rounds are stowed elsewhere in the vehicle. A coaxial M240C machine gun is mounted alongside the M242, and a pintle mounted M240 G/B machine gun, with 1,320 rounds of 7.62 mm ammunition, is mounted on the turret roof. The Canadian Army uses this chassis for its Coyote Armoured Reconnaissance Vehicle.
The vehicle has been through many changes through the late 1990s. The new modification or SLEP has changed the LAV-25 to the LAV-25A1 standard and has been completely fielded.
Funding has been approved for continued upgrades to the LAV family to bring them up to the LAV-A2 standard. Phase I improvements include increased external and internal ballistic armor upgrades, improved fire suppression equipment, and upgrading the vehicle’s suspension to the Generation II standard. Phase II upgrades include replacing the turret hydraulics with an electric drive system and replacing the thermal sight with an improved model incorporating a laser range finder.
To reflect the improved significant survivability and capability enhancements occurring today, the LAV is being renamed as the LAV-A2. The LAV-A2 project involved developing and installing an internal and external ballistic protection upgrade package for the Light Armored Vehicles, an automatic fire suppression system for the interior of the vehicle and a Generation II suspension upgrade to support the added weight of the new armor. The suspension upgrade includes new struts/steering knuckles, torsion bars, shocks and mounts and drive shaft. The three-kit armor system provides the LAV with additional survivability against improvised explosive devices (IED) and direct-fire kinetic energy weapons.
LAV-A2 includes the AN/PAS-13 Improved Thermal Sight System (ITSS) developed by Raytheon of McKinney, TX, scheduled for fielding by the end of 2007. The ITSS provides the gunner and commander with thermal images, an eye-safe laser range finder, a fire-control solution and far-target location target grid information.
The new armor will provide 14.5 mm armor-piercing all around protection for both the crew and passengers of the vehicle, along with anti-spall lining in the vehicle to further protect the crew. It will consist of the same protection as the US Army’s Stryker.
LAV fitted with an Emerson 901A1 TOW-2 ATGM (Anti-Tank Guided Missile) launcher, the same turret that was fitted on the M901 ITV (Improved TOW Vehicle). It is also armed with a pintle mounted M240E1 machine gun. It carries a total of 16 TOW missiles, and 1,000 rounds of 7.62 mm ammunition.
LAV fitted with opening doors on the top, inside it is fitted with an 81mm M252 mortar, with 360° traverse, and a pintle mounted M240E1 machine gun. It carries 99 81mm mortar shells, and 1,000 rounds of 7.62 mm ammunition.
LAV-AD (Air Defense)
LAV fitted with an electric turret mounting a 25 mm GAU-12 Equalizer gatling cannon, and two, four missile pods, which contain FIM-92 Stinger SAM (Surface-To-Air Missiles). It carries 990 rounds of 25 mm ammunition, and 16 FIM-92 Stinger missiles. This variant has been removed from service. A variant using the Mistral missile in place of Stingers was developed for the export market.
LAV fitted with a boom crane, and recovery winch, for use in recovery of vehicles, specifically other LAVs. It is armed with a pintle mounted M240 E1/G machine gun, and carries 1,000 rounds of 7.62 mm ammunition.
LAV-C2 (Command & Control)
LAV with a raised roof to accommodate several VHF, UHF and HF radios. It is armed with a pintle mounted M240 E1/G machine gun, and carries 1,000 rounds of 7.62 mm ammunition. Generally referred to as the C2 (“C-square” or “C-two”).
LAV modified for use in a logistics role (e.g., cargo transport).
LAV-MEWSS (Mobile Electronic Warfare Support System)
LAV modified for use in an electronic warfare role. Specific details of this variant are classified.
LAV-EFSS (Expeditionary Fire Support System)
Proposed replacement for LAV-M, LAV fitted with provisions to use Dragon Fire, a 120mm recoil mortar system.
Place of origin Switzerland / Canada
Service history In service 1983-present
Weight 12.80 t (14.10 sh tn)
Length 6.39 m (20.96 ft)
Width 2.50 m (8.20 ft)
Height 2.69 m (8.83 ft)
Primary armament M242 Bushmaster 25 mm chain gun
Secondary armament Two FN MAG 7.62 mm machine guns, one mounted coaxially and one pintle mounted on the roof
Engine Detroit Diesel 6V53T 275 hp (205 kW)
Power/weight 19.5 hp/sh tn (16.0 kW/t)
Transmission Allison MT653
Suspension 8×8 wheeled
Operational range 660 km (410 mi)
Speed 100 km/h (62 mph)